The Photoelectric effect
Atomic Models from Aristotle to Schroedinger
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Quantum tunneling and other useful quantum effects
Quantum physics is the essence of uncertainty: not only are both future and past indeterminate and malleable, even the present is uncertain and sometimes unknowable. Sometimes particles zig, sometimes they zag -- and nobody can say when or why or what shall come of it.
To classical physicists, things are either possible or impossible; to quantum physicists, everything is some shade of probability, and anything is possible if done fast enough.
Classical experiments are infinitely repeatable; identical conditions always yield identical, observable results. With quantum experiments, identical conditions are impossible to measure accurately and only probability determines the results, which cannot be observed without somehow being altered.
Reality, in classical physics, is outside, the ultimate frame against which anything can be observed objectively; in quantum physics, reality changes constantly, and objective observations are not possible.
In classical physics we can imagine ourselves outside of nature but our actions are nonetheless bound by determinism; in quantum physics we are intricately connected to nature and thereby gain freedom of choice.
Snow White and the Seven Quarks
Opinions vary on the overall meaning of quantum physics. Here are four interpretations:
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